A key element in all this is the process capability index - Cpk. In most organizations designers and design engineers have not been involved with process control activities. As a result, the Cp and Cpk indices are not well understood in the 'design engineering' arena.
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Certainly, designers do not need to have as thorough an understanding of these indices as quality and process engineers. At the risk of offending the statisticians who might read this article, the following is a simplified explanation of Cp and Cpk aimed at illustrating the way an understanding of these terms is crucial to process capable tolerancing. The tolerancing of parts is typically a two-step process.
First, tolerances are allocated to the features on the parts. Second, when there is time, these tolerances are analyzed to assure that design requirements are being met.
Typically, the allocation of tolerances is based upon:. Sadly, none of these methods relates to the quality initiatives being driven in world-class quality companies today. All too often tight tolerances have caused problems in manufacturing that design is unaware of.
Tolerances found in handbooks are frequently based on 3s tolerancing and have not been revised to reflect today's quality demands. The predicted cost of a product is determined, to a large degree, by the processes and materials used to produce the parts. These materials and processes should determine the tolerances allocated.
Designers need a way to instantly know if the tolerances they assign are reasonable for the processes and materials to be used. Due to the length of the article we have created individual pages for each section. Please follow the links below to these sections or, click here for a PDF of the entire article.
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Predicting Cpk when tolerances are allocated allows the designer to greatly reduce: Product cycle time Early life failures Scrap Rework Problem analysis time Testing Cost The tolerancing of parts is typically a two-step process. Typically, the allocation of tolerances is based upon: Past practice or carryover Data found in handbooks Seat-of-the-pants guesses Individual experience of the designer Sadly, none of these methods relates to the quality initiatives being driven in world-class quality companies today. Leaney, P. Huang, G. Batchelor, R. Booker, J. Designing capable assembly stacks p.
Designing reliable products p. Effective product development p.
Introductory statistics p. Process capability studies p. Overview of the key tools and techniques p.
Design of Experiments DOE p. Process capability maps p. Sample case studies used in validation p.
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Additional assembly process risk charts p. Miscellaneous operations p. Later Mechanical deformation p. Adhesive bonding p. Brazing and soldering p.
Resistance welding p. Fusion welding p. Blank conformability analysis tables p. Variability risks q[subscript m] and q[subscript a] results table p. Conformability matrix p. Assembly problems with two tolerances p.
Role of Reliability in an Organization
Properties of continuous distributions p. Equivalent mean [mu] and standard deviation [sigma] p. Fitting distributions to data using linear regression p. Cumulative ranking equations p. Linear rectification equations and plotting positions p.
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Distribution parameters from linear regression constants A0 and A1 p. Solving the variance equation p. Partial derivative method p.